Net Shape



Higher Quality

The SQRTM Process Fosters Quality
  • Matched tooling controls part dimensions
  • Tool and preform under high vacuum (typically < .5mm Hg abs.)
  • Resin hydrostatic pressure, typically 90-100 psi, is monitored and controlled (more directly than in autoclave)
Resulting in:
  • Tight dimensional control
  • Low void count

SQRTM = Faster Cycle Time

Process Control with FloWare™

FloWare™ software controls and monitors the following:

  • Tool heating
  • Injection cycle
  • Cure cycle
  • Tool cooling
Tool heating and cooling rates are controlled to upper end of process specification (5°F/minute) due to better conductivity in press.

Lower Cost

Lower Cost by integrating detail parts in Net-Shape design
  • Fastener cost reduction
    • Savings of 10-12% just from eliminating fasteners
  • Trim and assembly cost reduction
  • Tooling Costs less than or equal to autoclave
    • Non-recurring tooling cost is similar or less than autoclave tooling
  • Autoclave requires various trim and assembly fixtures
  • QA/Documentation cost reduction
    • Fewer parts reduces QA inspection task
  • Worlds largest manufacturers are using Radius Net Shape technology to lower costs.


  1. RTM uses Dry Preform
    • Fabric contains a small amount of “binder” resin to stabilize preform (~5%)
  2. Dry fabric layups placed in tool
  3. Vacuum is drawn on the tool
  4. Low viscosity RTM resin is injected


  1. SQRTM uses Prepreg Layups
    • Tape-laid or fiber-placed Layups
  2. Layups are de-bulked under vacuum
    • Same as for autoclave
  3. Vacuum is drawn on the tool
  4. Small amount of resin is injected
    • Resin fills the tool cavity around edges of the part

RTM and SQRTM –Why Use Prepreg?

  1. Wide range of qualified toughened materials to choose from
  2. Prepreg is program specific
    • Prepreg is “Same Qualified”
  3. Large existing Qualified database
    • Tough resin systems such as:
    • Hexcel 8552
    • Cytec 977
    • 5250-4
    • Toray 3900
  4. Higher allowables than most RTM laminates
  5. Reduce lay up labor with automation
    • Automated tape laying (ATL)
    • Fiber Placement (FP)
SQRTM Process

Same-Qualified Resin Transfer Molding (SQRTM) Duplicates Autoclave Process

  • SQRTM uses qualified prepreg (“same qualified”)
  • Uses toughened resins such as Cytec 977-2, Hexcel 8552, Toray 3900-1
  • Prepreg is tape-laid, drape-formed, or hand-laid, then debulked under vacuum, as per existing process spec.
  • Part is transferred to matched tools made of Invar, steel or Al
  • Tooling is clamped in press and instrumentation attached
  • Process closely follows standard autoclave process:
    • Vacuum is drawn on tool
    • Heat-up/ramp rate follows prepreg fabrication spec.
    • As tool is heated, small quantity of prepreg resin is injected into tool to fill tool cavity around edges of part
    • Resin does not impregnate prepreg, only creates fluid pressure
    • Resin hydrostatic pressure maintained at 6-7 bars during cure
    • Cool-down follows prepreg spec.

SQRTM vs. Autoclave Cure Cycle

SQRTM Process & Equipment In Action (animation)


Integrated Heating & Cooling, Pneumatic (no oil)

Examples of pneumatic presses Radius has built for clients

Much more information about Radius Engineering workcells can be found in the Manufacturing Workcells product section.


Flow Controlled Injectors, Integrated Degasser

Radius standard models or custom built systems

Much more information about Radius Engineering injectors can be found in the Injection Systems product section.


  • Tooling is designed to consider a number of features in order for it to perform successfully
    • Sizing for Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)
    • Resin injection ports
    • Vacuum ports
    • Vacuum seals & Part extraction and removal
    • Resin flow paths
    • Self alignment features
    • Critical Dimension Constraining
Example of SQRTM tooling Radius has designed and built

Much more information about Radius Engineering tooling can be found in the SQRTM & RTM Tooling product section.

SQRTM Parts are in Pre-Production Development & in Production

  • Global Hawk Component
  • Helicopter Fuselage for Army Helicopter
  • Proof of Concept Article: 3-Bay Wing Skin Test Panel
  • Commercial Aircraft Components for Boeing
  • Common to all parts is the use of existing qualified prepreg
  • Reduction in qualification/certification time is seen by customers as key benefit to this enabling technology
Project Examples

Raytheon Premier1 Flight Control Surfaces

Control surfaces for the Raytheon Premier 1 business jet.

Raytheon Premier1
  • Outboard Flap
    • RTM process with braided internal webs, net molding with PR520 resin from 3M. Extremely low void content. Size: approx. 1.5' X 9'
  • Inboard Flap
    • RTM Process with braided internal web, net molding with PR520 resin from 3M. Extremely low void content. Size: approx. 1.5' X 5'
  • Speed Brake
    • 350F cure, internal pressure molding (IPM) with 977-2 prepreg. Net molding, fiber volume and void content typical of autoclave processing. Composite and titanium fitting co-cured.
  • Roll Control Spoiler
    • 350F cure, internal pressure molding (IPM) with 977 prepreg. Net molding. Fiber volume and void content typical of autoclave processing. Composite and titanium fittings co-cured.
  • Aileron
  • Trim Tab
  • Radius provided a complete workcell including pneumatic press, injection system and net-shape tooling.
Workcell & Completed Parts
Inboard & Outboard Flap
Roll Control Spoiler & Speed Brake

Bombardier Flap & Vane

Multi-Cell RTM Approach Saves Weight and Cost.

Completed Flap & Vane

GE Aircraft & Albany International NextGen Engine Fan Blade

Completed Blade Photo & Engine Illustration
Fan Blade Tool

JASSM RTM Missile Wing and Tail Put into Production at Klune Industries

JASSM is AF & Navy next-generation cruise missile.

  • Radius responsible for:
  • Process development
  • Tooling & equipment
  • Training and facility set-up
ER-Wing upgrade in process.
JASSM Illustration
JASSM Mockup
JASSM Wing & Tail

Airbus A340 Spoiler Composite Center Fitting Replaces Metal

New composite Spoiler Fitting will reduce weight and cost on Airbus A330-340.

  • Radius responsible for:
  • Tooling design
  • Process engineering
  • First Article assistance
Overview of Fitting on Airbus A340.
Completed Fitting On Display.

One-Piece SQRTM Wing Developed for Toyota Aviation New 4-Seat All-Carbon Aircraft

  • Customer required one-piece structure for cost
    • Goal is high-rate production of aircraft
    • Skins, spars and ribs all integrated
  • Radius roles:
    • Design, technology, tooling, first flying prototypes
Overview of Toyota SQRTM Wing and Prototype Aircraft.
Tool, Layup, Demold & Completed Wing

Global Hawk RQ-4B Enhanced Wing is Flying with SQRTM Technology

Multi-spar Wing Tip in production at Vought Aircraft

  • Approx. 140” x 56”
  • ~ 45 lbs
  • Significant cost reduction vs. conventional design
  • Used legacy resin required by USAF
  • Radius provided:
    • Development
    • Prototypes
    • Production tooling and equipment
    • Training and first production articles
Overview of Tip-Cap and Wing Extension.
Entire Wing Structure Testing.
Perspective View of Tip-Cap and Wing Extension in Rotating Fixture.

One-Piece UH-60 SARAP Fuselage Roof Is Most Complex Net-Shape Structure to Date

Project goals include:

  • Reduced part count
  • Increased payload
  • Reduced manufacturing cost
UH-60 roof has all beams, frames and stringers molded at once in ~250 lb (~120 Kg) structure Radius responsible for:
  • Conceptual design
  • Process development
  • Tooling and first articles
Storyboard Showing Project Summary.
Fully Assembled SARAP Struction on Display.
Tool Components Assembled During Inspection.
View of Bottom and Top of Completed Roof Structure.

Airbus A320 Outboard Multi-Spar Flap

  • 7.5m Long Single-Shot Flap.
  • Multiple Internal Spars.
  • Sub-Element and Full-Scale Part Fabrication
  • Tooling
  • Workcell

Completed 7.5m Full-Scale Flap.

Copyright © 2024 Radius Engineering.

Radius Engineering, Inc.
1042 West 2780 South
Salt Lake City, Utah 84119
Phone: (801) 886-2624
Fax: (801) 886-2113